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See also Beth Zur
BETH-ZUR, BETHZUR bĕth zûr’ (בֵּֽית־צֽוּר; Βαιθσούρ, house of rock). Beth-zur was a town in the Judean mountains that was founded by the people of Maon, the descendant of Hebron, one of Caleb’s posterity (
The three Biblical references to this site are:
The greatest number of references belong to the Maccabean times when Bethsura (the Gr. form of Heb. Beth-zur) functioned as a strategic fortress. In episode after episode, this town figures as a strategic frontier town which was disputed between Judea and Idumea. Judas Maccabeus with ten thousand men met the Seleucid general Lysias with his sixty thousand men at Bethsura in 165 b.c. (
Antiochus Epiphanes died and Lysias promptly set his son Antiochus V, called Eupator, in his stead (
The mound of Khirbet eṭ-Ṭubeiqah was excavated by an American expedition in 1931 under the direction of O. R. Sellers and W. F. Albright. The task was again resumed in 1957 under O. R. Sellers’ direction.
Evidence for an Early Bronze Age occupation was very sporadic since the site yielded only a few handfuls of Early Bronze potsherds. It was not until the Middle Bronze Age II (19th-16th cent. b.c.) that there is evidence for any settlements. Surprisingly, it had a large population during the Hyksos period (the latter part of MB II) as is attested by the typical massive fortification walls. A few jar handles with the Hyksos designs are in evidence. In the 15th cent. the city was destroyed and remained unoccupied throughout the Late Bronze period. A 13th or 12th cent. Israelite occupation is ended by a burning level in the mid-11th cent. (Philistine wars?). Another occupation gap exists in the 10th and 9th centuries, which raises the question of Rehoboam’s fortification of this city in the late 10th cent., and a large occupation in the 8th and 7th centuries. The city was destroyed during Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion of the country and a small collection of evidence belongs to the Pers. period of Nehemiah’s day. The Ptolemies are represented esp. by some coins, the Seleucids by 173 coins (124 of which belonged to Antiochus IV Epiphanes), the Maccabees by eighteen coins and John Hyrcanus by sixteen coins.
Sometime around 100 b.c. the town was abandoned.
Bibliography O. R. Sellers and W. F. Albright, “The First Campaign of Excavation at Beth-zur,” BASOR, 43 (1931), 2-13; O. R. Sellers, “The 1957 Campaign at Beth-zur,” BA, 21 (1958), 71-76; R. W. Funk, BASOR, 150 (1958), 8-20; O. R. Sellers, The Citadel of Beth-zur (1933), for coins see pp. 73, 74, fig. 72.