BABYLON (Băb'ĭ-lŏn). The Greek form of the Hebrew word bāvel, which was closely allied to and probably derived from the Akkadian babilu or “gate of God.” The name referred not only to the city itself but also to the country of which it was the capital. Though not the oldest city in Babylonia, it soon became the most important from the standpoint of both size and influence.
Babylon was situated in central Mesopotamia on the river Euphrates, some fifty miles (eighty-three km.) south of modern Baghdad, capital of Iraq. A huge plantation of palm trees added to the beauty of the ancient city, and a permanent water supply assured fertility for the surrounding areas. It was within easy reach of the Persian Gulf and, being situated on an important caravan-trade route, was in contact with all the most important cultural centers of the ancient Near East.
The date of its foundation is still disputed. The connection between Akkad, Calneh, Erech, and Babylon (
The history of Babylon is complicated by the fact that it was governed by rulers from several lands who were successively engaged in struggles for its capture and retention. It was the scene of many a decisive battle, its magnificent buildings plundered in various periods and its walls and temples leveled from time to time. Yet this apparently indestructible city rose from its ruins on each occasion more splendid than before, until during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (c. 605-562 b.c.) it was probably the largest and most elaborate city in the ancient world. All that now remains of its former glory is a series of mounds some five miles (eight km.) in extent, lying mostly on the left bank of the Euphrates.
The political history of Babylon was bound up with that of Babylonia and Assyria, though from the beginning of the eighteenth century b.c. (about the period of Terah’s migration from Ur,
The first dynasty of Babylon fell about 1596 b.c. when the Hittite king Mursilis I advanced from Anatolia (modern Turkey) with an army and sacked the city. For about three hundred years Babylon was at the mercy of the Kassites who lived to the north, the Elamites, and other warlike nomadic people. An early Assyrian monarch Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1250) occupied Babylon and took the sacred statue of Marduk, patron deity of the city, to Ashur. From the end of the tenth century Babylon became a vassal of Assyria, controlled by the kings of Nineveh. Occasionally the vassal ruler revolted and attempted to form a new dynasty in Babylon, but by the time of Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria (c. 745-727) Babylon was completely under Assyrian control. This redoubtable monarch, known as Pul in
One of the more vigorous vassal rulers of Babylon who revolted against Assyria was Mardukapal-iddin (c. 722-711 b.c.), the Merodach-Baladan of
Sargon was succeeded by his son Sennacherib (c. 705-681 b.c.), who employed vassal princes to keep Babylon in subjugation. When this device failed, he attacked the city and sacked it in 689, removing the statues of its gods to Assyria. It was left to his son Esarhaddon (c. 681-669) to repair the damage and restore the city, perhaps at the instigation of his mother, who was apparently of Aramean descent. When Esarhaddon died, his kingdom was divided between his two sons. One of them, Ashurbanipal (c. 669-626), the last great Assyrian ruler, reigned in Nineveh while his brother Shamash-Shumukin occupied the throne of Babylon. They quarreled bitterly, and in 651 Ashurbanipal attacked and burned Babylon. His brother was killed, and a vassal was appointed to succeed him. Toward the end of Ashurbanipal’s life this man became increasingly rebellious, and from 631-612 the influence of Babylon increased to the point where Nabopolassar founded an independent dynasty in 626, known as the neo-Babylonian, or Chaldean, regime.
Under Nabopolassar (c. 626-605) and his son Nebuchadnezzar II (c. 605-562), ancient Babylon attained the height of its splendor. While both men were notable military strategists they were also individuals of cultural interests, and they set about rebuilding the old Babylonian Empire so as to make it the most splendid and notable of all time. Military expeditions brought numbers of captive peoples to Babylonia, and these were employed as artisans and craftsmen on the vast reconstruction projects. As a result of the energy and imagination of Nabopolassar and his son, the influence of Babylon far outstripped that of Nineveh, and in 616 the Babylonians began a miltary campaign against the middle Euphrates region that ended in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire.
Nabopolassar first marched to the Balikh River and sacked a number of towns but returned to Babylon the same year. In 615 b.c. he set out to attack Ashur, and after a year’s siege the city capitulated. A revolt in the central Euphrates region delayed a further attack on Assyria, but in 612 a combined force of Babylonians and Medes marched against Nineveh, captured it, and burned it to the ground. The remnant of the Assyrian forces fled to Haran in NW Mesopotamia, and despite their attempts to ally with Egypt they were decisively defeated in 610, ending the power of the Assyrian regime.
A battle at Carchemish in 605 b.c. against the Egyptians gave the Babylonian forces a decided military advantage, and Nabopolassar determined to occupy southern Palestine, probably intending to use it as an advance base for a subsequent attack on Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar directed the operation on the death of Nabopolassar in 605, and in 597 the first attack on Judah took place. This was followed by others in 586 and 581, when several thousand inhabitants of Judah were sent to Babylon as captives. This group joined other previously enslaved peoples, supplementing the already large labor force employed on the gigantic tasks of reconstruction and expansion current in the empire.
Once Nebuchadnezzar felt reasonably secure, he devoted an increasing amount of attention to the expansion of cultural interests in imperial territory, and more particularly in Babylon. His objective was to make this capital the most notable city in the world, and to this end he constructed new canals and navigable waterways, erected magnificent buildings, and laid out extensive parks. A number of travelers who visited Babylon at this time have left their impressions of the city. The description furnished by Herodotus in particular clearly indicates his amazement at the city’s great size and splendor.
According to this notable historian of antiquity the city occupied an area of about two hundred square miles (513 square km.) and was built on both sides of the Euphrates. It was protected by a double defensive brick wall reinforced with towers. Outside the city wall, about twenty yards (nineteen m.) distant, was an additional defensive wall of burnt bricks set in bitumen. The outer portion of the twin walls extended over seventeen miles (twenty-eight km.) and was constructed under Nebuchadnezzar, while his predecessors were responsible for other parts of the fortification. Excavations at the mound have shown that the earliest attempt at constructing a defensive system goes back to the nineteenth century b.c.
According to cuneiform sources, access to the city was gained by eight gates, four of which have been excavated. Probably the most impressive of these is the Ishtar gate, located at the northern end of the mound. To reach it one passed down part of the great stone-paved processional street that was about one thousand yards (937.5 m.) in length. It was decorated on either side with figures of lions passant in enameled brick. Assyrian art was at its height at this period, and the draftmanship and execution of these animals indicates an advanced degree of artistic skill. The Ishtar gate was also decorated with animals, consisting of about a dozen rows of bulls and mythological dragons placed alternately. The decor was executed predominantly in blue and brown enamel and was done in the time of Nebuchadnezzar.
When the city was at the height of its influence, there were more than fifty temples in Babylon. When some of these were excavated, they were found to be in a reasonably good state of preservation. The temple of Ninmah, goddess of the underworld, was built by Ashurbanipal near the Ishtar gate. The ground plan indicated that when the city was approached from the north, a vestibule led into a larger courtyard, the south end of which was decorated with pillars. Beyond these was an antechapel, while to the south of this area was the shrine of the deity; this shrine contained among other structures an elevated platform designed to support a statue of the goddess. In addition there were living quarters for the priests and stairways that gave access to other parts of the building. A great number of terra-cotta figurines were uncovered at the site but proved to be of little importance.
The southern citadel that was adjacent to the processional street comprised a huge complex of buildings whose main sections were the work of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar. Several blocks of buildings and courtyards finally led to the royal palace, many of whose rooms were ornately decorated with blue enameled bricks incorporating motifs similar to those used in Greece at a later time. The living quarters provided for the royal family, the court officers, and the retinue of servants, and displayed the grandeur and pomp characteristic of an eastern court.
In this complex was situated one of the seven wonders of the world, the celebrated “hanging gardens” of Babylon. They actually consisted of terraces supported on huge masonry arches, on which carefully tended gardens had been laid out at different levels. Most probably they were designed and executed under Nebuchadnezzar, who had married a Median princess and intended the raised gardens to be a comforting reminder of her mountainous homeland. They included many species of Babylonian and Persian plants in addition to the palm trees that were a characteristic feature of Babylonia at that time. Water was raised to these elevated terraces by a number of mechanical hoists. The interesting feature of these raised gardens was that they were visible above the tops of the buildings, providing a welcome contrast of greenery against an otherwise unrelieved expanse of white roofs or blue sky.
In an enclosed area southwest of the Ishtar gate was the huge ziggurat of Babylon, which was closely linked with the temple of Marduk lying immediately to the south. A ziggurat was a staged or terraced tower crowned with a small shrine dedicated to a particular deity. The structure was generally erected on a mound or artificial brick platform, presumably to serve as a protection against floodwaters. Sometimes the term ziggurat is used to include the platform as well as the tower itself. This great staged tower of Babylon may have been the original
The associated temple of Marduk consisted of an annex leading to the principal building. In the latter were a number of chapels devoted to deities other than Marduk, but his shrine was by far the most ornate, richly decorated with gold, alabaster, cedar-wood paneling, lapis lazuli, obsidian, and other semiprecious stones. Much of this work was done in the sixth century b.c.
Nebuchadnezzar died in 562 b.c., and during the next five years three kings, one of whom was the Evil-Merodach of
Darius I (c. 521-485 b.c.) continued the political tendencies begun by Cyrus, but in later years the center of influence of the Achaemenid regime moved from Babylon to Persepolis and Ecbatana. When the Persian Empire fell to in 330, Babylon was destroyed. Alexander intended to reconstruct the great ziggurat, and ordered the rubble removed from the site, but at his death in 323 the task was left unfinished.
Although remaining an inhabited site, Babylon declined still further in importance under the Parthians (c. 125 b.c.) and was last mentioned on a Babylonian clay tablet dated about 10 b.c. At the present time the Baghdad-to-Bassorah railway line passes within a few yards of the mound that was once the most splendid city of the world.——RKH
BABYLON, NT băb’ ə lən (Βαβυλὡν). Name of the world center, both literal and allegorical, which acted against God’s people.
In the genealogy of b.c. (
This epistle ends with greetings from “she who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen” (
Until the Reformation this reference was taken as Rome, it being always assumed that “Babylon” was the place in which the letter was written. Two early cursives add en Romē as explanation. There is ancient tradition that Peter visited Rome, and Mark had been summoned there by Paul (
That Babylon was still an active city during the 1st cent. a.d. is attested by dated Babylonian texts (latest a.d. 100) and by the presence of devout Jews from there at Jerusalem at Pentecost (
According to Strabo (Geography XVII, 1:30) c. a.d. 18 there was a Rom. frontier post named Babylon after the city of its founders, either refugees from Nebuchadrezzar’s army or later exiles. It is unlikely that this would be the site of a church and there is no direct evidence of any stay in Egypt by Peter, though Mark was connected with the Alexandrine church, one of whose heretics, Basilides, claims the apostolic tradition of Peter through his interpreter Glaukias ( , Stromateis, VII: 17).
“Babylon” as a cryptogram.
It has been suggested (Selwyn) that for reasons of security Babylon was used to cover an unknown church center where Peter was at work. The contents of the letter would scarcely warrant this view, which is closely allied to another supposition that Babylon merely stood for the “place of exile” recalling the dispersion of
The symbolic city.
The name of Babylon is, however, clearly stated to be a mystērion, that is to be allegorically interpreted (
G. T. Manley, “Babylon on the Nile,” EQ, XVI (1944), 138-146; M. E. Boismard, “Une liturgie baptismale dans le Prima Petri II,” RB, LXIV (1957), 181; A. F. Walls, The First Epistle General of Peter (1959), 64-66.
BABYLON, OT băb’ ə lən (בָּבֶ֔ל, Akkad. bābilī, bāb-ilāni, “the gate of god(s),” Gr. Βαβυλών, G956). Capital of the land of Babylonia, S. Iraq, from which the land takes its name.
The etymology of the name Babel is given as “confused” (bālal) (
Babylon lay in the land of Shinar (
Early travelers sought to identify Babylon with the upstanding remains of the ziggurrat towers at Aqarquf, W of Baghdad, or at Borsippa, seven m. SSW of Bâbil, because of the tradition of the “
Rich made soundings in the two largest mounds, Bâbil and Qasr which he mapped in a.d. 1817. Though spasmodic work was carried out by A. H. Layard and others in 1850 and by the Frenchmen Fresnel and Oppert, much of the time the site was in the hands of locals who dug for inscribed tablets, and these were found in abundance. A major expedition by Die Deutsche Orient Gesellschaft under Robert Koldewey in 1899-1917 laid a firm foundation for Neo-Babylonian archeology, though only part of the citadel area was uncovered. Remains of earlier occupation in the Old Babylonian period were uncovered only in a limited area owing to the high water table. Further work has been carried out by the Germans under H. Lenzen since 1956 in conjunction with the Iraq Department of Antiquities who have undertaken clearing and restoration work in the citadel area (Procession Way, Ninmakh Temple and the Royal Palace Throne Room) as well as having constructed a museum and rest house on the site.
(Qasr). Babylon had two citadels, the northern one built outside the N wall by Nebuchadrezzar II. Both it and the southern citadel were entered by the Ishtar Gate, a forty ft. high double tower decorated with alternate rows of glazed relief brickwork depicting the mušnuššu-dragon of Marduk and the bull of Hadad. Many changes in the building level in antiquity mean that the outstanding remains now visible are thus largely the massive foundations for this edifice.
Outside the gateway lay the small temple dedicated to Ninmakh (now reconstructed). It was built by Labashi, the architect, for Ashurbanipal (669-627 b.c.) and measured 163 ft. by 106 ft. Hundreds of female figurines in clay found here testify to its use and popularity. The Ishtar Gate led to the sacred Procession Way and to both citadels which together formed a single defense for the palace complex to the S. The citadel in Neo-Babylonian times seems also to have been used as a “museum” to display objects and inscrs. from earlier periods within and without Babylon. Here were found a stela of the Hitt. god Teshup from Zincirli (7th cent.) and inscrs. of the Assyrian kings Adad-nirari III and Ashurbanipal from Nineveh. The “Lion of Babylon,” a massive basalt sculpture depicting a lion trampling a fallen human enemy, also may be of Hitt. origin, though a similar design is also to be seen on the ivories of the 7th cent. from Nimrud.
The southern citadel incorporated a royal palace c. 350 x 200 yards grouped around five courts. One of these (197 ft. by 164 ft.) gave access to the throne room (165 ft. by 143 ft. with its wall covered with glazed bricks forming friezes of garlands, palmettes and rosettes in blue, white and yellow. It may well have been in this palace, with its harem and domestic quarters attached, that Belshazzar gave his feast to more than one thousand guests (
The NW corner of the citadel, near the Ishtar Gate, was occupied by a building at a lower level comprising a series of vaults which, to judge by the discovery of documents made there, were used as administrative quarters or stores for the palace. It has been suggested that these were the sub-structure for the “Hanging Gardens” described by Herodotus. This was a palace built on ranges of lofty terraces on which were laid out trees and gardens watered by special hoists. They were said to have been constructed by Nebuchadrezzar on his marriage to Amytis, daughter of Astyages the Mede, to cement the alliance and to remind her of her hilly homeland.
Babylon was encircled by a double system of defenses each comprising two walls. The inner Imgur-Bēl was twenty-one ft. thick and reinforced with towers at sixty foot intervals. The outer (Nimit-Enlil) was eleven ft. in width and also had protruding watchtowers. About six ft. outside these ring walls lay a brick-lined quay wall to contain the waters fed from the Euphrates River which formed a flood defense. The walls were initally the work of the Amorite kings of the First Dynasty but were strengthened by the last Assyrians to hold Babylon, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, and by the successive rulers of the Chaldaean line. Of the latter, it was Nebuchadrezzar who added an outer wall E of the Euphrates to enclose his Summer Palace (“Bâbil”) to the N and to run for seventeen m. to defend the plain between the city and the outskirts, thus forming an enclosure within which the local population could retreat and camp in time of war. Later writers describe the outer city walls as running for forty-two m. with the inner walls extending for 2 1/2, 4 1/2 and seven m. respectively (Ctesias) with the middle wall 300 ft. high with its towers reaching 420 ft. The wall behind the moat was said to be fifty royal cubits. Herodotus declared that the city walls were 480 furlongs or a circuit of fifty-six m.
Inscriptions show that eight gates gave access to the inner city; of these four have been excavated: the Ishtar Gate to the N; Marduk (Urash) and Zababa to the E; Urash to the S. There were also the thus far undiscovered gates of Sin (N), Enlil and Shamash (S) and Adad (W). This gave three major gates, to which must be added four minor gates, to the N and S. On the W only one gate gave entrance to the New City on the right bank of the Euphrates built by Nebuchadrezzar II.
The city was planned on a symmetrical basis with the main thoroughfares linking the city gates running parallel or at right angles to each other. Each street had its expressive name, the most distinguished being the “Procession way” (Ai-ibūr-ša̱bū, “the enemy shall not prevail”) which began at the Ishtar Gate and ran E of the southern citadel for more than a thousand yards before it turned westward by the sacred precincts of Esagila, Marduk’s temple, to the seven-piered bridge which spanned the river to the New City. This road was forty to fifty ft. wide and paved with stone, some inscribed “I am Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon....I paved the road of Babylon with mountain stone for the procession of the mighty lord Marduk. May Marduk, my lord, grant me eternal life!” Such an inscr. is typical of many in Babylon of the time of Nebuchadrezzar whose boast in
The Temple area.
The sacred precinct of Babylon now lies in the Sahn, S of Qasr, near ’Amran ibn ’Ali whose mausoleum dates from c. a.d. 680. The dominant feature was the temple tower (ziggurat) Etemenanki (“House of the foundation of Heaven and Earth”) standing in a courtyard measuring 460 x 408 x 456 x 412 yards and entered by twelve gates. It is likely that the main entry was kept closed except for the annual procession of the gods Marduk and Nabu. One inscr. (Esagila tablet) and the description by Herodotus (History I. 187) show that the ziggurat had a square base (c. 300 yards) and rose in eight stories to the small temple of blue enamel brick which topped it. Ascent was by staircases to the first platform (as at Ur) and thence by ramps or stairs diagonally to each upper and smaller level, thus giving the appearance to Herodotus of a “circular stair.” The total height was c. 300 ft. However, excavations in 1913 yielded little evidence in support of this picture of the “Tower of Babel,” since the site had been robbed heavily in the preceding centuries by locals searching for building materials. The site is now a deep depression, hence its name (“Sahn”).
The tower also overshadowed the adjacent Temple of Marduk, the city’s prime deity, called Esagila (“House of the Uplifted Head”). Since Shulgi of Ur restored the shrine in 2100 b.c. most kings who revered Babylon had maintained it in repair. It thus remained in use until about the 1st cent. a.d. despite the successive sackings of Babylon. Within the sanctuary, with its walls of gold and alabaster pillars supporting the cedar roof beams, Marduk was shown sitting on his throne with his sacred bed nearby. The temple area measured 470 x 270 yards and also housed chapels for Nabu and his wife Tashmetum in Ezida (“House of Knowledge”) and lesser divinities. The texts list more than fifty shrines within the city, fifteen of them built by Nebuchadrezzar. Babylon was certainly conspicuous for its many statues (
E of the temple area the mound of Merkes was found to contain private houses of all periods from the First Dynasty to the Parthians. Here too was a temple to Ishtar of Akkad (Emeshdari). To the NE at Ḥomera was the debris as removed by Alexander in clearing the city for his planned reconstruction and also a Gr. theater.
The Ur III kings appointed governors over the city before the Amorite invasion led to the founding of the First (Semitic) Dynasty of Babylon under Sumu-Abum (1894). He restored the walls and the sixth king of the line (Hammurabi, 1792-1750 b.c.) enlarged the city and made it a prosperous capital and trading center. It was in Esagila that Hammurabi set up the copy of his laws as a report to Marduk of his stewardship as king. With the capture of the city by the Hittites c. 1595 and its subsequent occupation by Kassites, Babylon lost much of its power and splendor. Sometimes under governors ruling on behalf of Assyrian overlords, at other periods she harbored a series of local dignitaries who sought to keep out the surrounding tribesmen.
Assyria was drawn into the politics of Babylon when Shalmaneser III was called to intervene in a dispute for the throne among the sons of Nabu-apla-iddina. He settled the quarrel, offered sacrifices in Marduk’s temple and treated the inhabitants with respect. The mother of his son and successor, Adad-nirari III (870-783), was Samuramat, possibly the classical Semiramis who, according to Herodotus, did much to embellish the city. Tiglath-pileser of Assyria left a native king Nabu-nasir on the throne until his death in 734 b.c. The southern tribes under Ukin-zēr of Amukkani thereupon seized Babylon, and to regain it Tiglath-pileser first negotiated to win over his rival Marduk-apla-iddina (Merodach-baladan) of Yakin and was successful until, on the death of Shalmaneser V in 722/1, Merodach-baladan proclaimed Babylon’s independence by taking “the hand of Bel” and the title “king of Babylon” (
Esarhaddon, who followed his murdered father to the throne (681-669 b.c.), had firsthand experience of the city where he had acted as governor for some years. His father’s decree calling for “the devastation of the city for seventy years” was rescinded. He rebuilt the city, introduced an efficient administration, and returned many of the refugees. His son Shamash-shum-ukin was made “crown prince of Babylonia” while Ashurbanipal was chosen as “crown prince of Assyria.” This arrangement worked well for twelve years after Esarhaddon’s death. Dissension between the new ruler and his brother mounted with the growing restlessness of the southern tribes. Ashurbanipal advanced on Babylon in 651 and besieged the town for three years until, in despair, Shamash-shum-ukin set fire to his palace and perished in the flames. The Assyrians then installed Kandalanu as governor.
The Babylonian Chronicle notes an insurrection in Babylonia in Nebuchadrezzar’s tenth year (595/4) and a legal document of the following year records a decision to appropriate the land of a man put to death in Babylon for high treason. This has been compared with Hananiah’s prophecy that in the same year the yoke of the king of Babylon would be broken (
Nebuchadrezzar added considerably to the defenses of Babylon, esp. to the E, for he foresaw that the main threat would come from the Medes. His death was followed by a steady weakening of the regime for his successor Amēl-Marduk (Evil-merodach of
Soon after his election Nabonidus led the army to Pal. and N. Arabia, leaving his son Bēl-shar-uṩur (Belshazzar) as co-regent in Babylon. Nabonidus’ decision to stay in Arabia at Teima’ resulted from his unpopularity at home as much as from his desire to found a settlement there with exiles from Pal. In Babylon there had been inflation brought on both by the continuing military expenditure and by the extensive program of public works begun by Nebuchadrezzar. This amounted to fifty per cent between 560 and 530 b.c., resulting in widespread famine. Nabonidus’ absence has been connected with the seven-year madness of Nebuchadrezzar (which might also have been a royal throne-name assumed by Nabonidus himself in
The fall of Babylon.
In the last year of Nabonidus the Babylon Chronicle records that the gods of the cities around Babylon, except Borsippa, Kutha and Sippar, were brought in, an action taken only at the sign of impending war. The Pers. army clashed with the Babylonians at Opis while in the city Nabonidus seems to have quelled a popular uprising with much bloodshed. Sippar fell to the Pers. army led by Ugbaru, the district governor of Gutium, who entered Babylon the next day without a battle. This ease of entry may have been due to action by fifth columnists or, as Herodotus asserts, to the diversion of the River Euphrates which rendered the flood defenses useless and enabled the invaders to march through the dried up river bed to enter by night. Belshazzar was killed (
Cyrus claimed the title “King of Babylon” and made his son Cambyses “take the hands of Bēl” in the New Year ceremonies of 538. This enabled him to act as his viceroy in Babylon which remained peaceful until his death in 522.
In the reign of Darius II (521-486) a further return of exiles to Jerusalem was allowed (
Xerxes and his successors (Artaxerxes I-Darius III, 464-332) had little to spare for Babylon amid their lengthy and expensive wars with Greece and little of architectural merit from this time has been found. Irrigation work was neglected and the diversion of trade on the main Pers. road from Sardis to Susa aided the diminution of the city’s influence. On 1 October 331 b.c. Alexander (III) was welcomed by the Babylonians when he entered the city after his victory over the Medes at Gaugamela (near Erbil). He was acclaimed king and on his return from the E nine years later he planned extensive renovations including the creation of a port for the city. Though the site of Esagila was cleared, work ceased on Alexander’s death in Babylon on 13 June 323. The subsequent struggles among his generals did not leave the city unscathed. Seleucus, who claimed the title of king in 305 b.c., was acknowledged from 311 when all documents were dated by his “era.” The foundation of a new capital city at Seleucia on the River Tigris increased the decline of the ancient metropolis. Documents on clay from a priestly school in the city continued at least until a.d. 100. For this reason some see in
R. Koldewey, The Excavations at Babylon (1914); E. Unger, Babylon, Die heilige Stadt (1931); O. E. Raven, Herodotus’ Description of Babylon (1932); D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British Museum (1956); A. Parrot, Babylon and the(1958); H. W. F. Saggs, The Greatness that was Babylon (1962); “Babylon,” Archaeology and Old Testament Study (1967), 39-56.