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(Gr. archimandritems, “head of the fold”). In patristic Greek the word mandra served as a designation for the temple or the church, but in the late fourth century it was applied to emerging monasticism, which was legally regulated by Justinian I (527-65) following the Basilian pattern, placing each monastery or group of monasteries under the control of the archimandrite. Though he was usually a presbyter, he could be a deacon or even a lay monk elected by majority vote of the community, though receiving the staff of his office from the diocesan bishop.