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Anselm of Lucca

1036-1086. Bishop of Lucca. Of a noble Milanese family (his uncle of the same name became Alexander II), he firmly supported Pope Gregory VII and became bishop in 1073. Soon he resigned to retire to the Cluniac monastery at Polirone. At Gregory's behest he returned, but the austerities he imposed brought expulsion by Henry IV and the antipope Clement III, and he spent the rest of his life as spiritual director to Countess Matilda of Tuscany and as papal legate in Lombardy. His Collectio canonum, compiled about 1083, aided the Gregorian reform by discussing ecclesiastical privileges, episcopal elections, lapsed clergy, sacraments, and excommunication. Based on several sources, it was later incorporated in Gratian's Decretum.