Lecture 19: Luther and the Small Catechism
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Luther developed a catechism to help people focus on the foundational beliefs of the Christian faith.
Luther and the Small Catechism
Luther, the Pastor: From the Small Catechism
I. A Brief History of Catechism
A. Galatians 6:6, 2 Clement 17:1
B. Ambrose and Augustine
1. Augustine first to use term catechism
2. In the middle ages catechism became a popular movement. It was a lay movement that paralleled the monastic.
C. A Fruitful Mirror of Small Handbook for Christians, 1470
1. Particular structure
a. What one must believe
i. begins with faith
ii. moves to the commandments - goal to bring one to contrition
b. How one must live
2. Everyone who holds to these lessons can hope to reach heaven
D. Other Catechisms
1. There were tons written during this time.
2. An example of an Anabaptist who wrote one as if in dialogue between two individuals.
II. Luther's Small Catechism
A. The request of Nicolas Hausmann
B. Three reasons for Luther's catechism
1. Has an experience during a visitation the need for the catechism - Lull, 471 - The Small Catechism
2. Lengthy absence of the head pastor.
3. Disputes in 1527 between Melanchthon and Agricula over penitence.
a. Agricula - Forget the teaching of the law, preach the gospel only. "Moses belongs in the courthouse not the church"
b. Melanchthon - We have to preach the law which convicts of sin and then preach the gospel. Without law one does not come to the realization of need
C. The significance of Luther's work
1. Reversal with medieval piety
a. Medieval devotion runs from faith, to penitence, to satisfaction
b. For Luther begin, with the Law that brings one to their need, into the truth of the gospel, and then to serve the neighbor.
2. Becomes a handbook for the Christian household.
3. In the medieval world there was a definite division between the sacred and the secular world. Luther works against this. He shows that the Christian life is the object of our work no matter what.
4. The small catechism was originally printed on small boards so that it could be hung on the wall to aid families to study it.
5. There were 22 wood cuts as visual aids.
6. Included two appendices: Luther's Marriage and Baptismal Services.
7. Law and gospel again the rubric in which Luther explains his evangelical approach to catechism.
8. For Luther he writes the catechism on this same model but he begins with a new hermeneutic, the distinction between law and gospel. One begins first with law that leads one to gospel.
III. Small Catechism look at the 10 Commandments
A. Fear, love and trust God.
B. This is how God is revealed in the world.
C. Fear, a major component
D. Discussion of the Sabbath
E. Recommendation of it as a devotional
IV. Small Catechism on the Creed
He is my Lord. Not a matter of opinion or doctrine but it is a matter of personal belief.
V. On the Lord's Prayer
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