Lecture 3: His Life and Times
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Martin Luther was born in Germany in the late 15th century, just after Guttenberg developed his printing press.
His Life and Times
Luther, the Pastor: Psalm 23:1
I. The Increase of Power of European Monarchies under the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V over Ecclesiastical Authorities
1. 14th Century Campician Kings
2. King Phillip crushed the Knights of Templar
3. Effects of the Hundred Years war with England
4. France's national identity began to superscede regional loyalties
1. Hundred Years war centralized the power from Royal Kingdoms
2. Power consolidated into the hands of the King
3. Under Edward I Parliament's power increased
4. Established the Tudor Monarchy
Isabella of Spain and Ferdinand of Aragon combined Kingdoms to form modern Spain
1. Power not yet formally centralized as in above examples
2. Independent regional administrative units comprised the area of modern day Germany and Italy
II. Money and Print Reach New Hands
A. Emerging of the Guilded class
1. Skilled craftsmen began acquiring increasing amounts of money
2. New class empowered by mobility, financial independence, literacy and autonomous thought
B. Printing Press
1. 1450 Guttenberg's Printing Press
2. Cheaper paper developed
III. The Rise of Anti-Clericalism
A. The Great Schism (1378-1417) - after 3 Popes had claimed authority of The Church, people began to question a single authority.
B. The Council of Constance (1414-1417)
C. The Renaissance Popes
IV. The Flourishing of Popular Religion
A. Endowed Mass and Pilgrimages
C. Rituals Surrounding Death
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