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The Islamic Sharia

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Sharia is Islamic religious law which regulates both public and private aspects of life.


The Islamic Sharia


I.  Great Hadith Passage #1: “The Night Journey and Miraj”


II.  Components of Sharia

A.  Definition of Sharia

B.  Ijma as a third guiding principle beyond Qur'an and Hadith

1.  The relationship of Ijma to Shura

2.  The relationship of Ijtihad to Ijma

C.  Historical Discursive: Ijma evolves into Law: 700 - 900 A. D.

1.  Four major leaders

a.  Abu Hanifa (d. 767) Hanifi School of Law

b.  Malik ibn Anas (d. 796) Malikite School of Law

c.  Muhammad al-Shafi (d. 819) Shafite School of Law

d.  Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855) Hanbalite School of Law

2.  The emergence of Fiqh and Kalam

3.  The Islamic Ulama / Mujtahid and the “gate of Ijtihad”

D.  Lesser Components of Sharia

1.  Fatwa (legal opinion)

2.  Qiya (analogy)


III.  Sharia Structure in Sunni and Shia

A.  Overall sources of legal framework

1.  Sunni: Qur'an + Hadith + Ijma (open or closed?)

also, Qiya and Fatwa

2.  Shia: Qur'an + Hadith + Imam

also, Qiya and Fatwa

B.  Categories of Sharia

1.  Two fold

a.  Duties to God (ritual)

b.  Duties to others (social)

2.  Five fold

a.  Obligatory

b.  Recommended

c.  Indifferent

d.  Objectionable

e.  Prohibited

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