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The deontological ethic judges morality by examining the nature of actions and the will of agents rather than goals achieved.
II. The Deontological Ethic
A. Immanuel Kant
1. Categorical Imperative
2. Formulation of the Categorical Imperative
a. The Maxim
b. Treat others as ends, never as means.
3. Rationalist Approach
a. Morality is similar to mathematics and logic.
i. Discovered, not invented
b. A violation of a categorical imperative is a violation of reason.
c. Focus on factors common to all rational beings.
B. "The Good Will"
1. What is "the good will"?
2. Critique of "the good will"
C. Three Forms of the Moral Law
3. Self-imposed law
a. Heteronomous law
b. Theonomous law
c. Autonomous law
D. Evaluation of Kant's Formulations
1. Positive side
a. No acknowledgment of sin
b. Missing a personal dimension to duty
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