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Lecture 21: Pastoral Epistles

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Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.


Letters of Paul

Part 9

IX. Pastoral Epistles

A. General Background

1. Letters to apostolic delegates

2. Stylistic differences from the rest of Paul

3. Uncertain setting in Pauline chronology

4. Doctrinal distinctives

B. Book by Book

1. Titus

a. Paul is free again

b. To Titus on Crete

c. Similar to heresy in Ephesus

2. 1 Timothy

a. Same as above but to Timothy in Ephesus

b. Hellenistic/Gnostic? issues clearer

3. 2 Timothy

a. Paul imprisoned again

b. Now almost certainly in Rome

C. Pseudonymity and the Pastorals

1. The Jewish world

2. The post-first-century Christian World

3. I. H. Marshall (ICC) and Allonymity

D. Titus: by Rachel Blomberg

1. Titus was a good guy

2. You should read Titus – it's short and sweet

3. Rachel likes Titus

4. Paul was smart

E. Titus Outline and Notes

1. Greetings – later abbreviated in 1 Timothy?

2. Instructions for various groups in the church (1:5-2:15)

3. Concluding exhortations – do what is good (3:1-15)

F. Titus as a Mandate Letter

1. Language of commanding (especially chapter 1)

2. Instructions regarding office of elder (1:5-9)

a. Compare 1:5 and 1:7 (elder = overseer)

b. Compare Acts 14:23 (practice established early)

3. Epiphany language (see especially 2:13)

4. Warnings about the factious (especially 3:10)

G. What’s Wrong with These Interpretations?

1. Children of elders must be believers (1:6)

2. Drugs, sex, alcohol pure for those who are pure (1:15)

3. Women must stay at home (2:5)

4. Baptism is necessary for salvation (3:5)

H. Key Texts for Background to 1 Timothy

1. 1:3 and another mandate letter

2. 1:7-11 on Judaizing

3. 4:1-4, 6:20 on Gnosticizing

4. 6:3-19, especially vv. 17-18 on wealthy

I. 1 Timothy Outline - How to pastor a church and turn it away from heresy

1. The reason for the letter: Stand fast against false teaching (1:1-20)

2. First method: Careful control over church worship and leadership (2:1-3:16)

3. Second method: True Godliness vs. Asceticism (4:1-16)

4. Third method: Proper respect for various kinds of people in the church (5:1-6:2)

5. Concluding warnings (6:3-21)

J. What's Wrong with These Interpretations?

1. 1 Timothy 4:8 as a motto for physical conditioning for Christians

2. We don't implement the commands in chapter 5 regarding widows so why be so concerned about gender roles in chapter 2?

3. 5:8 teaches that the man must be the primary breadwinner

4. Can't apply 5:19 if no one saw what happened

5. Money is the root of all evil (6:10)

6. It is impossible to be a good steward and enjoy riches (6:17-19)

K. The five uses of malista in the Pastorals

1. 1 Timothy 5:8 – Providing for relatives, namely, family

2. 1 Timothy 5:17 – Elders, namely, those who preach and teach

3. 2 Timothy 4:13 – My scrolls, namely, the parchments

4. Titus 1:10 – The rebellious people, namely the circumcision group

L. The Chain of Christian Leadership: Four Key Stages of 2 Timothy 2:2

1. Paul

2. Timothy

3. Faithful teachers

4. Others also

5. Summary: Your ministry requires disciples who will train others to keep passing the torch.

M. 2 Timothy Outline: "Pass it on" (A personal parenetic letter)

1. Thanksgiving and encouragement for faithfulness (chapter 1)

2. The commitment which faith requires (chapter 2)

3. Godlessness described and opposed (chapter 3)

4. Final charge (chapter 4)

N. Exegetical Highlights of 2 Timothy

1. 1:5 – Lois, Eunice key links in teaching Judaism/Christianity

2. 2:3-7 – key metaphors for single-mindedness

3. 2:13 – God's faithfulness in our faithlessness

4. 2:15 – the need for good exegesis

5. 3:1-9 – the last days have begun (but note when!)

6. 3:12 – key text on suffering as normal!

7. 3:16-17 – key text for inspiration (and relevance!) of Scripture

8. 4:7 – the need for perseverance


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