Lecture 33: Passion and Resurrection – Part 1
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The death and resurrection of Jesus are significant both historically and theologically.
II. Passion and Resurrection
A. Passion Narrative
1. The historical problems [but were all the rabbinic laws already in force and were they followed?]
2. The theological heart [the 7 last "words" of Christ]
3. The theological distinctives [cf. Aland , 354]
a. Mark: apocalyptic signs and a divine son (Sanhedrin, centurion, nature)
b. Matthew: Judas' death fulfills Old Testament, heightened Jewish responsibility, guard at tomb
c. Luke: emphasis on innocence (Herod and Pilate, centurion, repentant criminal)
e. Jesus' true humanity ("Behold the man," spear thrust proves true death)
f. Jesus' divine authority (scene in garden, appearance before Pilate)
1. The Chronology of appearances
a. Sunday morning to women (with Mary running ahead and returning later)
b. Sunday afternoon to Cleopas and companion on Emmaus road and to Peter
c. Sunday evening to the Ten behind locked doors in Jerusalem
d. One week later, at end of festival, to Eleven (with Thomas)
e. Over the next five weeks to 7, 11 even 500 by Sea of Galilee, on Mount (and probably elsewhere in Galilee)
f. Ascension (11 back in Jerusalem for Pentecost) on Mt. of Olives
2. Historical support
a. Women as first witnesses of empty tomb in all 4 gospels
b. Old Testament significance of crucifixion – how overcome?
c. Sabbath-Sunday shift despite eternal, "big 10"
d. Proclaimed in earliest creeds, already in ca. 32
e. Uniform "bodily" form of resurrection in Judaism
3. Theological meaning
a. The new covenant age has begun (but without general resurrection, yet guaranteeing it)
b. "Life after life after death" (N. T. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God)
4. Evangelists' Distinctives
a. Mark: no actual appearance, fear, silence
b. Matthew: guard fails, Great Commission
c. Luke: to Emmaus, Christological interpretation of Scripture, ascension
d. John: true humanity showed to Thomas, true divinity confessed by Thomas, relations between Peter and John
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