Lecture 20: Stoicism
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Stoics were determinists who believed in living according to nature.
A. Contrast with Epicureanism
1. View of God
a. Epicureans - Polytheists
b. Stoics - Pantheists
2. Ultimate Reality
a. Epicureans - Materialists, Indeterminists
b. Stoics - Materialists, Determinists
a. Epicureans - Empiricists
b. Stoics - Empiricists
a. Epicureans - Hedonism
b. Stoics - Living according to nature
B. Three Major Periods
1. Early (300 - 200 B.C.)
2. Middle (150 B.C. - A.D. 1)
3. Later (A.D. 1 - 250)
a. Seneca (A.D. 1 - 65)
b. Epictetus (A.D. 50 - 138)
c. Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121 - 180)
C. The Stoic Ethic
D. Stoic Pantheism
E. Influence of Cynicism
1. Live according to "nature"
3. Nature became a nonpersonal, pantheistic god; fate
F. The Stoic Metaphysic
G. Did Stoicism influence the writers of the New Testament?
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