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Romans (Part 2)

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Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.


Letters of Paul

Part 5

V. Romans: The Most Systematic Exposition of Paul's Gospel

A. Key Places as Background for Romans

1. Written from Corinth (15:25, 16:1)

2. En Route to Jerusalem (15:25-27, 31-32)

3. In Hopes of Coming Then to Rome (15:23-24, 1:11-12)

4. And Continuing on to Spain (15:24, 28)

B. Timeline

1. A.D. 49 – Claudius expels Jews from Rome

2. A.D. 54 – Claudius dies, Jews begin to return

3. A.D. 56 or 57 – Romans written

C. Romans Outline

1. Introduction and thanksgiving (1:1-15)

2. The theology of the Gospel (1:16-11:36)

3. The ethics of the Gospel (12:1-15:13)

4. Conclusion: Personal plans and greetings (15:14-16:27)

D. Romans Outline (Chapters 1-3) - The theology of the Gospel

1. Thesis Statement (1:16-17)

a. Wright – Gospel: Proclamation of King Jesus against all rivals

b. Jervis on God-likeness, including the "righteousness of God"

2. Universal sinfulness (1:18-3:20)

a. Gentiles accountable (1:18-32)

i. General revelation: teleological, moral arguments for God

ii. Idolatry producing both hetero- and homosexual sin

b. Jews accountable due to Law (2:1-3:20)

3. Justification by faith (3:21-5:21)

E. Romans 4

1. Promise to Abraham: Blessing for Gentiles

2. Law – Moses

3. Fulfillment in Jesus: Blessing for Gentiles

F. Romans Outline (Chapters 4-5)

1. Right legal standing with God (Chapter 4)

2. Right relationship with God (Chapter 5)

a. Reconciliation (5:1-11)

b. Adam-Christ typology (5:12-21)

i. Similarities

ii. Differences

G. Romans Outline (Chapters 6-8)

1. Sanctification – Christian Growth (6:1-8:39)

a. Freedom from sin (Chapter 6)

i. Baptism as metonymy for salvation (vv. 3-4)

ii. Indicative leading to imperative (vv. 6, 11-14)

b. Freedom from law (Chapter 7)

c. Freedom from death (Chapter 8)

i. The present and coming victory (vv. 1, 30)

ii. The correct translation/interpretation of v. 28

2. The Unbroken Chain of Romans 8:29-30

a. Foreknowledge

b. Predestination

c. Calling

d. Justification

e. Glorification

3. Romans 8:29-39

a. Calvinism: God's sovereignty prior

b. Calminianism": God's sovereignty and human freedom in balance (middle knowledge)

c. Arminianism: Human freedom prior

H. Romans Outline (Chapters 9-11)

1. The role of Israel – Why have so many rejected the Gospel? (9:1-11:36)

a. Principle of a remnant (9:1-29)

b. Wrong approach to Law (9:30-10:21)

c. To give place for Gentiles, after which they will again turn back (Chapter11)

2. Outline Chapter 9

a. Double predestination

i. Believers saved at God's initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at God's initiative

b. Single predestination

i. Believers saved at God's initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at their own initiative

c. Zero predestination

i. Believers saved at their own initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at their own initiative

3. Corporate election in the Torah

a. Abraham

i. Ishmael

ii. Isaac

b. Pharoah

4. Individual election in Romans 9:22-24

a. Objects of wrath: Prepared for destruction (Or, having prepared themselves)

b. Objects of mercy: Whom he [God] prepared in advance

5. Outline Chapters 6-11: The double archway of Christian experience

a. "Whosoever will may enter here"

b. "Elect before the foundation of the world

6. The destinies of the Jews

a. Living by faith in God's promises – accepting Christ as Lord and Savior – accepting Christ

b. Treating law as means of salvation – rejecting Christ as Lord and Savior

7. The destinies of the Gentiles

a. Could come by faith in God via natural revelation – accepting Christ as Lord and Savior

b. Separated from God's special revelation – rejecting Christ as Lord and Savior – full number is complete

8. Implications of Romans 11:25-27

a. At best, a prelude to fulfilling Old Testament prophecy about state of Israel

b. But current spiritual signs not promising

c. So, we dare not neglect justice for Palestinians

I. Romans Outline (Chapters 12-16)

1. The ethics of the Gospel (12:1-15:13)

a. Transformation (12:1-2) – recall Jervis again

b. Gifts (12:3-8)

c. Love (12:9-13:14)

i. Contrast 12:17-21 with 13:1-7

ii. Can the world distinguish the church from the government?

d. Tolerance (14:1-15:13)

i. 14:1-18 [A]

ii. 14:19-15:6 [B]

iii. 15:7-13 [A]

2. Conclusion: Personal plans and greeting (15:14-16:27)

a. Note the regions beyond principle again in 15:23

b. Note the prominent women in 16:1,7

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