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Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation - Lesson 22

Pastoral Epistles (Part 2)

Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

Craig Blomberg
Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation
Lesson 22
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Pastoral Epistles (Part 2)

Letters of Paul

Part 9

IX. Pastoral Epistles

A. General Background

1. Letters to apostolic delegates

2. Stylistic differences from the rest of Paul

3. Uncertain setting in Pauline chronology

4. Doctrinal distinctives

B. Book by Book

1. Titus

a. Paul is free again

b. To Titus on Crete

c. Similar to heresy in Ephesus

2. 1 Timothy

a. Same as above but to Timothy in Ephesus

b. Hellenistic/Gnostic? issues clearer

3. 2 Timothy

a. Paul imprisoned again

b. Now almost certainly in Rome

C. Pseudonymity and the Pastorals

1. The Jewish world

2. The post-first-century Christian World

3. I. H. Marshall (ICC) and Allonymity

D. Titus: by Rachel Blomberg

1. Titus was a good guy

2. You should read Titus – it's short and sweet

3. Rachel likes Titus

4. Paul was smart

E. Titus Outline and Notes

1. Greetings – later abbreviated in 1 Timothy?

2. Instructions for various groups in the church (1:5-2:15)

3. Concluding exhortations – do what is good (3:1-15)

F. Titus as a Mandate Letter

1. Language of commanding (especially chapter 1)

2. Instructions regarding office of elder (1:5-9)

a. Compare 1:5 and 1:7 (elder = overseer)

b. Compare Acts 14:23 (practice established early)

3. Epiphany language (see especially 2:13)

4. Warnings about the factious (especially 3:10)

G. What’s Wrong with These Interpretations?

1. Children of elders must be believers (1:6)

2. Drugs, sex, alcohol pure for those who are pure (1:15)

3. Women must stay at home (2:5)

4. Baptism is necessary for salvation (3:5)

H. Key Texts for Background to 1 Timothy

1. 1:3 and another mandate letter

2. 1:7-11 on Judaizing

3. 4:1-4, 6:20 on Gnosticizing

4. 6:3-19, especially vv. 17-18 on wealthy

I. 1 Timothy Outline - How to pastor a church and turn it away from heresy

1. The reason for the letter: Stand fast against false teaching (1:1-20)

2. First method: Careful control over church worship and leadership (2:1-3:16)

3. Second method: True Godliness vs. Asceticism (4:1-16)

4. Third method: Proper respect for various kinds of people in the church (5:1-6:2)

5. Concluding warnings (6:3-21)

J. What's Wrong with These Interpretations?

1. 1 Timothy 4:8 as a motto for physical conditioning for Christians

2. We don't implement the commands in chapter 5 regarding widows so why be so concerned about gender roles in chapter 2?

3. 5:8 teaches that the man must be the primary breadwinner

4. Can't apply 5:19 if no one saw what happened

5. Money is the root of all evil (6:10)

6. It is impossible to be a good steward and enjoy riches (6:17-19)

K. The five uses of malista in the Pastorals

1. 1 Timothy 5:8 – Providing for relatives, namely, family

2. 1 Timothy 5:17 – Elders, namely, those who preach and teach

3. 2 Timothy 4:13 – My scrolls, namely, the parchments

4. Titus 1:10 – The rebellious people, namely the circumcision group

L. The Chain of Christian Leadership: Four Key Stages of 2 Timothy 2:2

1. Paul

2. Timothy

3. Faithful teachers

4. Others also

5. Summary: Your ministry requires disciples who will train others to keep passing the torch.

M. 2 Timothy Outline: "Pass it on" (A personal parenetic letter)

1. Thanksgiving and encouragement for faithfulness (chapter 1)

2. The commitment which faith requires (chapter 2)

3. Godlessness described and opposed (chapter 3)

4. Final charge (chapter 4)

N. Exegetical Highlights of 2 Timothy

1. 1:5 – Lois, Eunice key links in teaching Judaism/Christianity

2. 2:3-7 – key metaphors for single-mindedness

3. 2:13 – God's faithfulness in our faithlessness

4. 2:15 – the need for good exegesis

5. 3:1-9 – the last days have begun (but note when!)

6. 3:12 – key text on suffering as normal!

7. 3:16-17 – key text for inspiration (and relevance!) of Scripture

8. 4:7 – the need for perseverance


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Class Resources
  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul contrasts the condescention and the exaltation of Christ, and addresses specific situations in the Philippian church.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • Jude and 2 Peter both emphasize refuting false teachers.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

Using the English New Testament, this course surveys the New Testament epistles and the apocalypse. Issues of introduction and content receive emphasis as well as a continual focus on the theology of evangelism and on the contemporary relevance of the variety of issues these documents raise for contemporary life.