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Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation - Lesson 15

Romans (Part 2)

Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

Craig Blomberg
Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation
Lesson 15
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Romans (Part 2)

Letters of Paul

Part 5

V. Romans: The Most Systematic Exposition of Paul's Gospel

A. Key Places as Background for Romans

1. Written from Corinth (15:25, 16:1)

2. En Route to Jerusalem (15:25-27, 31-32)

3. In Hopes of Coming Then to Rome (15:23-24, 1:11-12)

4. And Continuing on to Spain (15:24, 28)

B. Timeline

1. A.D. 49 – Claudius expels Jews from Rome

2. A.D. 54 – Claudius dies, Jews begin to return

3. A.D. 56 or 57 – Romans written

C. Romans Outline

1. Introduction and thanksgiving (1:1-15)

2. The theology of the Gospel (1:16-11:36)

3. The ethics of the Gospel (12:1-15:13)

4. Conclusion: Personal plans and greetings (15:14-16:27)

D. Romans Outline (Chapters 1-3) - The theology of the Gospel

1. Thesis Statement (1:16-17)

a. Wright – Gospel: Proclamation of King Jesus against all rivals

b. Jervis on God-likeness, including the "righteousness of God"

2. Universal sinfulness (1:18-3:20)

a. Gentiles accountable (1:18-32)

i. General revelation: teleological, moral arguments for God

ii. Idolatry producing both hetero- and homosexual sin

b. Jews accountable due to Law (2:1-3:20)

3. Justification by faith (3:21-5:21)

E. Romans 4

1. Promise to Abraham: Blessing for Gentiles

2. Law – Moses

3. Fulfillment in Jesus: Blessing for Gentiles

F. Romans Outline (Chapters 4-5)

1. Right legal standing with God (Chapter 4)

2. Right relationship with God (Chapter 5)

a. Reconciliation (5:1-11)

b. Adam-Christ typology (5:12-21)

i. Similarities

ii. Differences

G. Romans Outline (Chapters 6-8)

1. Sanctification – Christian Growth (6:1-8:39)

a. Freedom from sin (Chapter 6)

i. Baptism as metonymy for salvation (vv. 3-4)

ii. Indicative leading to imperative (vv. 6, 11-14)

b. Freedom from law (Chapter 7)

c. Freedom from death (Chapter 8)

i. The present and coming victory (vv. 1, 30)

ii. The correct translation/interpretation of v. 28

2. The Unbroken Chain of Romans 8:29-30

a. Foreknowledge

b. Predestination

c. Calling

d. Justification

e. Glorification

3. Romans 8:29-39

a. Calvinism: God's sovereignty prior

b. Calminianism": God's sovereignty and human freedom in balance (middle knowledge)

c. Arminianism: Human freedom prior

H. Romans Outline (Chapters 9-11)

1. The role of Israel – Why have so many rejected the Gospel? (9:1-11:36)

a. Principle of a remnant (9:1-29)

b. Wrong approach to Law (9:30-10:21)

c. To give place for Gentiles, after which they will again turn back (Chapter11)

2. Outline Chapter 9

a. Double predestination

i. Believers saved at God's initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at God's initiative

b. Single predestination

i. Believers saved at God's initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at their own initiative

c. Zero predestination

i. Believers saved at their own initiative

ii. Unbelievers damned at their own initiative

3. Corporate election in the Torah

a. Abraham

i. Ishmael

ii. Isaac

b. Pharoah

4. Individual election in Romans 9:22-24

a. Objects of wrath: Prepared for destruction (Or, having prepared themselves)

b. Objects of mercy: Whom he [God] prepared in advance

5. Outline Chapters 6-11: The double archway of Christian experience

a. "Whosoever will may enter here"

b. "Elect before the foundation of the world

6. The destinies of the Jews

a. Living by faith in God's promises – accepting Christ as Lord and Savior – accepting Christ

b. Treating law as means of salvation – rejecting Christ as Lord and Savior

7. The destinies of the Gentiles

a. Could come by faith in God via natural revelation – accepting Christ as Lord and Savior

b. Separated from God's special revelation – rejecting Christ as Lord and Savior – full number is complete

8. Implications of Romans 11:25-27

a. At best, a prelude to fulfilling Old Testament prophecy about state of Israel

b. But current spiritual signs not promising

c. So, we dare not neglect justice for Palestinians

I. Romans Outline (Chapters 12-16)

1. The ethics of the Gospel (12:1-15:13)

a. Transformation (12:1-2) – recall Jervis again

b. Gifts (12:3-8)

c. Love (12:9-13:14)

i. Contrast 12:17-21 with 13:1-7

ii. Can the world distinguish the church from the government?

d. Tolerance (14:1-15:13)

i. 14:1-18 [A]

ii. 14:19-15:6 [B]

iii. 15:7-13 [A]

2. Conclusion: Personal plans and greeting (15:14-16:27)

a. Note the regions beyond principle again in 15:23

b. Note the prominent women in 16:1,7


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Class Resources
  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul contrasts the condescention and the exaltation of Christ, and addresses specific situations in the Philippian church.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • Jude and 2 Peter both emphasize refuting false teachers.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

Using the English New Testament, this course surveys the New Testament epistles and the apocalypse. Issues of introduction and content receive emphasis as well as a continual focus on the theology of evangelism and on the contemporary relevance of the variety of issues these documents raise for contemporary life.