Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Parmenides
Heraclitus and Pythagoras lived into the 5th century BC.
II. Heraclitus (535-475 B.C.)
A. Lived in the city of Ephesus
B. Call "The Dark One"
C. Contempt for contemporaries as well as for mystery religions
1. Everything subject to change: "Cannot step into the same river twice."
2. Basic stuff is fire (metaphor of change)
3. Everything will be consumed by fire; upward and downward paths the same
4. Doctrine of the Logos
E. Unplanned death
III. Pythagoras (ca. 572-475 B.C.) and the Pythagoreans
A. Influence of Orphic Religion
1. Immortality and reincarnation of souls
2. Mind-body dualism
3. Body is a prison-house of soul
4. Idea of religious community
5. Rejection of Orphic theology
B. Moral Views
1. Achieve purity by achieving deliverance of soul from bodily influence
2. Accomplish this by moral rules emphasizing abstinence
3. Role of philosophy, mathematics and music in purifying the soul
C. Scientific Views
D. Views about numbers