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A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.


Letters of Paul

Part 1

I. Galatians: The Charter of Christian Liberty

A. Acts and Galatians on Paul's Trips to Jerusalem

1. Acts

a. Brief meeting with apostles (9:19-29)

b. famine visit

c. apostolic council

2. Galatians

a. Brief meeting with apostles after 3 years (1:15-24)

b. Longer meeting with apostles after 14 years (2:1-10)

c. Confrontation with Peter in Antioch (2:11-14)

B. Galatians as an "Apologetic Letter"

1. Epistolary prescript (1:1-5)

2. Exordium: statement of problem (1:6-11)

3. Narratio: thesis to be demonstrated and presentation of facts (1:12-2:14)

4. Propositio: summary of points of agreement and what remains contested (2:15-21)

5. Probatio: proofs or support (3:1-4:31)

a. Logical arguments

b. Emotional arguments

c. Illustrative arguments

d. Figurative arguments

6. Exhortatio: parenesis (5:1-6:20)

7. Epistolary postscript (6:11-18)

C. Galatians Outline

1. Greetings (1:1-5)

2. Defending Paul's apostolic authority (1:6-2:14)

3. Defining justification by faith rather than law (2:15-4:31)

a. Thesis (2:15-21)

b. Supporting arguments (3:1-18, 4:8-31)

c. The purposes of the Law (3:19-4:7)

4. Describing freedom in Christ through the Spirit (5:1-6:10)

5. Closing (6:11-18)

D. Being Harsh vs. Being Nice

1. Nice

a. Jesus: welcoming outcasts

b. Paul: all things to all people

2. Harsh

a. Jesus: invective against Pharisees

b. Paul: invective against Judaizers

E. Paul vs. the Judaizers

1. Judaizers: faith in Christ + works of the Law = justification

2. Paul: faith in Christ = justification + works of the Spirit

F. History in Romans and Galatians

1. Promise – Abraham

2. Law – Moses

3. Fulfillment – Jesus

G. Law vs. Gospel

1. Before Christ

2. After Christ

H. Tertius Usus Legis – ("Three Uses of the Law") according to the Protestant Reformers

1. As a deterrent to sin for unbelievers

2. To point out our need for a Savior

3. As a moral guide for believers

a. Love

b. Fruit of the Spirit

c. Law of Christ

I. Galatians 3:28

1. Equality only regarding salvation

2. Visible privileges and freedoms (e.g. baptism)

3. No distinction in roles or functions

J. Paul's Typology in Galatians 4:21-31

1. Physical descent [Judaizers' views]

a. Isaac (by Sarah) -- Jews (present Jerusalem) {free}

b. Ishmael (by Hagar) -- Christians (esp. Gentiles) {slaves}

2. Spiritual descent [Paul's views]

a. Isaac (by Sarah) -- Christians (Jerusalem from above) {free}

b. Ishmael (by Hagar) -- Non-Christian Jews {slaves}

K. Judaism vs. Paul

1. First century Judaism

a. Legalism

b. Covenantal Nomism

c. Ethnocentrism/Nationalism

2. Paul

a. Against "works-righteousness" for salvation

b. Against redefining Christianity by rules rather than relationship

c. Against exalting one country or race above another